The 25-year-old links up with Stalybridge boss James Kinsey, having worked together previously at Wythenshawe Town.
Last season, Palma scored 19 goals in 45 appearances for the club before earning a move to Bury over the summer.
Formerly of Altrincham, Trafford and Curzon Ashton, he is eligible to face Alty in the Cheshire Senior Cup on Tuesday night.
On the league front, a four-game unbeaten run - including a 1-1 draw at home to Pitching In NPL West Division leaders Prescot Cables on Saturday - has left Celtic third in the division.
“I’m delighted to be here. I’ve played for Kinsey before so I know the way he wants to play," he said.
"The club has been in great form and hopefully I can come in and add to the group and help towards a promotion push.”
Manager James Kinsey said: “Darius is somebody we wanted to bring with us in the summer, but he had already committed to Bury.
"We’re delighted to have added him to the group as he will bring so much to us in the final third.
“He’s tricky and is an exciting player when in one-on-one situations. He knows how we want to play from his time with us previously, so we know he will settle in quickly with the group."
Photo credit: Bury