Whitehead has had two previous spells with the Gladiators, the latest being under Dave Frecklington’s management in 2018/19.
He also played for Spalding United, Lincoln United, Leek Town, Frickley Athletic and Loughborough Dynamo before joining United earlier this season.
Tall, tough-tackling and combative, Carruthers says he will add much needed strength in the middle of the park, as well as being able to play at the heart of defence.
“I’m delighted to welcome Nathan back to Matlock Town," he said.
"He is another experienced player who I know will add steel and bite to us, plus leadership that we’ve been missing this season.
"He’ll certainly help in encouraging the younger players around him. A former Matlock player who I’m sure everyone will know, a local lad which we want to bring into the football club and someone who can play in central midfield or at the back, he gives us versatility.”
Subject to approval, Whitehead will be included in the Gladiators' squad that travels to North Ferriby in the FA Trophy on Saturday.